Use double quotes to find documents that include the exact phrase: "aerodynamic AND testing"

The use of nicotine by athletes has not been thoroughly examined. A recent study found that 1 in 5 athletes, from a range of 90 different sports, tested positive for nicotine in-competition. Positivity rates were lower in endurance sports than power-based ones, and lower in individual sports than team sports. These findings suggest that WADA could further investigate nicotine use within elite athletes.

Researchers suggest that the best way to promote fair sport is to move away from a solely doping-centric focus towards promoting high levels of integrity. In this 2022 article, researchers question the usefulness of the term “clean sport,” which is theorized differently as “drug-free sport” versus “cheating-free” sport.

The 2021 Canadian Anti-Doping Program (CADP) incorporates the World Anti-Doping Agency’s new Athletes’ Anti-Doping Rights Act. Developed by athletes, for athletes, the Act outlines various athlete rights with respect to the fight against doping and to further support athletes worldwide in their right to compete in clean, fair and ethical sport. Learn how the CADP is protecting athletes and the integrity of sport in Canada.

To determine the most effective means to deter doping in sport, why not ask the athletes? In new research from the University of Münster, elite German cyclists and field athletes suggested: 1) improving detection and diagnostics, and 2) increasing bans for offenders and strengthening anti-doping laws. Increased fines and leniency programs for offenders who cooperate in the identification of other offending athletes were ranked as far less effective.

The 2021 Canadian Anti-Doping Program (CADP) incorporates the World Anti-Doping Agency’s new Athletes’ Anti-Doping Rights Act. Developed by athletes, for athletes, the Act outline various athlete rights with respect to the fight against doping and to further support athletes worldwide in their right to compete in clean, fair and ethical sport. Learn how the CADP is protecting athletes and the integrity of sport in Canada.

Anti-doping is often thought to be exclusive to high-performance sport. Athletes are whisked away from the public eye after winning events to have urine and blood collected. It’s true that testing athletes at competitions is an important element of a successful anti-doping program, but there is much more involved in creating a sporting culture that values and celebrates clean sport.

CADP logo

On January 1, 2021, a new version of the Canadian Anti-Doping Program (CADP) came into effect. As the country’s anti-doping agency, the Canadian Centre for Ethics in Sport (CCES) administers the CADP on behalf of the sport community. The CCES is proud to implement an effective anti-doping program that is tailored for Canadian sport and provides the most value to those who are subject to the rules.

Here are five things that all sport stakeholders should know about the 2021 Canadian Anti-Doping Program:

1. The CADP is compliant with the World Anti-Doping Code

The revised World Anti-Doping Code (hereafter referred to as the Code) also came into effect on January 1, 2021. The Code is updated every six years following an extensive stakeholder consultation process managed by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). This most recent version was ratified at the fifth World Conference on Doping in Sport in November 2019.

Sign with two arrows pointing opposite directions (Fair Play and Doping).

As a signatory to the Code, the CCES had to update the 2015 CADP to reflect the 2021 Code. To meet that requirement, the CCES released the 2021 CADP to the sport community on October 15, 2020 following a six-month, multi-phase stakeholder consultation.

WADA determined that the 2021 CADP is compliant with the Code and all associated elements, which protects Canadian athletes’ fundamental right to participate in doping-free sport and ensures the Canadian program is harmonized with anti-doping programs at the international and national level.  

Over the years, Canadian athletes have expressed concern that other anti-doping programs are not as rigorous as the CADP and they can’t be sure their competitors are subject to the same anti-doping standards. Revisions to an international standard in the 2021 Code aim to provide harmonized, coordinated, and effective anti-doping programs at the international and national level. WADA will ensure all Code signatories are compliant through the 2021 International Standard for Code Compliance by Signatories that includes legal, technical, and operational requirements.

2. The new international Athletes’ Anti-Doping Rights Act is incorporated into the CADP

The CCES incorporated WADA’s new Athletes’ Anti-Doping Rights Act directly into the rules of the 2021 CADP. Developed by athletes, for athletes, WADA introduced the Act during the 2021 Code consultation process to outline various athlete rights with respect to the fight against doping and to further support athletes worldwide in their right to compete in clean, fair and ethical sport.

The Act has two parts. The first part reiterates athlete rights found in other parts of the Code and its international standards. The second part is more aspirational, and sets out rights that athletes recommend for anti-doping organizations to adopt as a best practice. The CCES is committed to upholding the rights of Canadian athletes as laid out in the Act, with an emphasis on those identified in the second part of the Act:  

3. The CADP belongs to Canadian sport

In its role as Canada’s anti-doping organization, the CCES implements and administers the CADP, but the program belongs to the Canadian sport community. To ensure every new version of the CADP meets the needs of stakeholders, the CCES engages in a thorough consultation process that puts athletes at the heart of the issues.

Athlete posing with gold medals around his neck

The CCES collected feedback and suggestions for the 2021 CADP through targeted stakeholder consultations that included athletes, sport organizations, and expert groups. Then, stakeholder feedback was considered against the required rules of the World Anti-Doping Code, and appropriate changes were made to the 2021 Canadian program.  

To ensure athletes’ perspectives were captured in the consultation process, the CCES consulted with long-term partner AthletesCAN, the association of Canada’s national team athletes. These experienced individuals shared their anti-doping expertise and insight to the benefit of all Canadian athletes.

4. The CADP is not just for athletes

The CCES aims to provide everyone in the sport community with the tools and resources they need to foster an environment that values clean sport. Despite this, some athletes and support personnel may choose to engage in doping activities. In such an event, the jurisdiction of the 2021 CADP extends beyond athletes to encompass athlete support personnel, who are also eligible to receive anti-doping rule violations. This includes coaches, trainers, managers, agents, team staff, officials, medical and paramedical personnel, and even parents who are involved with a sport that has adopted the CADP.

Under the 2021 CADP, a smaller group of designated support personnel will be required to complete online learning and to sign an agreement confirming they have been educated on and understand their requirements related to the CADP.  

The CCES will collaborate with sport organizations during the 2021 CADP adoption period to identify candidates for this designation.

5. The CADP is supported by values-based education

The CCES appreciates that clean sport does not exist simply because an anti-doping program exists. It exists because organizations and individuals make an effort to ensure that everyone involved has the knowledge, tools and motivation to protect themselves and the integrity of their sport.

Excited female swimmer with clenched fist celebrating victory in the swimming pool. Woman swimmer cheering success in pool wearing swim goggles and cap.

The 2021 CADP describes a values-based approach to educational programming, and the CCES, in turn, delivers an education program that couples anti-doping topics, such as prohibited substances and anti-doping rule violations, with the development of individual beliefs, attitudes and life skills, and the establishment of environments that strongly support clean sport. This method helps athletes and support personnel understand how activities like doping and cheating run contrary to the values of Canadian sport.  

The majority of the CCES’s CADP-related education is delivered to learners across the country via the suite of True Sport Clean online learning courses in English or French, and provides targeted modules for learners with different requirements, such as testing pool athletes, and athlete support personnel. The CCES also delivers in-person presentations that reinforce the online learning content and aim to have a positive and long-term influence on the values and choices made by athletes and their support teams.

For more information, consult the 2021 Canadian Anti-Doping Program and World Anti-Doping Code.

About the CCES

The Canadian Centre for Ethics in Sport (CCES) is an independent, national, not-for-profit organization with a responsibility to administer the Canadian Anti-Doping Program. We recognize that true sport can make a great difference for individuals, communities and our country. The CCES acknowledges funding, in part, from the Government of Canada. We are committed to making sport better by working collaboratively to activate a values-based and principle-driven sport system; protecting the integrity of sport from the negative forces of doping and other unethical threats; and advocating for sport that is fair, safe and open to everyone.

In this highly-anticipated SIRC webinar, Politics vs Principle: retaining integrity in sport, and why it matters, Beckie Scott discussed the importance of ethics and integrity in sport and safeguarding the rights of athletes in the face of increasing pressures to generate revenue and the expectations of International sport bodies.

Below is a video recap of the session and a Q&A blog with Beckie addressing some of the questions posed by participants.

This was the fifth session in SIRC’s new webinar series, Experts in the House. Register now for upcoming sessions.

Please note: this webinar recap has been edited for brevity.


Q: What do you see the role of athlete health services (doctors, physios, athletic therapists etc.) in supporting and upholding ethics and integrity in sport?

I think that all individuals who make up the athletes’ entourage have a responsibility to support and uphold integrity in sport; however, it is especially important for those who may have the capacity or access to performance-enhancing drugs and methods such as doctors, physios, etc. to adhere to the highest standards and ensure they are only ever promoting and encouraging therapeutic methods that are ethical and legal. It is their role to protect the athlete’s wellbeing and to offer alternative solution that are inline with ethical and clean sport principles.

Q: How would you recommend sport organizations who do not have an Athlete Council, start one?

The first thing sport organizations need to ask themselves is why they are setting up an Athlete Council. AthletesCAN logo If a sport organization is truly interested in welcoming athlete input and guidance, then it is worth moving forward. Sport organizations, if they are serious about athlete engagement must also empower athletes and set them up for success. Support them with dedicated staff if possible, and ensure they have a vote at the decision-making tables. AthletesCAN is a benchmark example in Canada of independent athlete representation.

As well, athlete councils need to be established based on defined rules and bylaws. You cannot rely on good faith for the long-term sustainability of independent athlete representation.

Q: What advice would you give to athletes involved with sport governance to ensure their voice and perspective is acknowledged, respected and valued?

From my years of experience, I have found that sport organizations want to amplify the athletes’ voices that support their decisions and silence the ones that challenge. My advice is to speak openly, speak often, and insist on a seat at the table for athletes. Sport will be enhanced and can only benefit by meaningful athlete engagement. It will take time to achieve but it will be worth the effort in the long term. Increased athlete involvement and input will serve to help sport, not hurt it.

Q: I am happy to hear you attempted to get voice and vote for athletes at the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) decision making table. I am curious to know if, in retrospect, you would do anything differently. What did you learn from that attempt?

I don’t think I would do much differently, to be honest. The WADA Athlete Committee was very committed to fair and independent representation of athletes and fought very hard for this. We were not afraid to challenge and we believed that having a seat around the table was a progressive and important step forward.

We pushed for change, but my time as the Chair was coming to an end when the governance reforms were being introduced and implemented. We now must rely on the current WADA Athlete Committee to see those reforms through to ensure more athlete representation. I also know that we rallied an independent athlete group to continue to demand change for more athlete representation at the WADA decision making tables and they continue to advocate this position.

Q: WADA recently made the threat to move in the direction to ban countries that have not “paid” their dues to WADA when the US Government considered pulling funding from WADA if they did not make reforms.  What are your thoughts on this public statement?

The statement made by WADA suggesting U.S. athletes may be banned from competition should the US Government rescind their payments to WADA has no rules or policies to support it, as far as I’m aware. I was very surprised to read that in the headlines.

Q: What leaves you feeling hopeful about the future of sport, from an ethics and fairness point of view?

To this day I strongly believe in the power of sport to transcend barriers, promote and support physical and mental health, and provide a path of opportunity for young people that they may not otherwise know.  I am hopeful. We are seeing a level of athlete activism like we have never seen before. At one point the WADA Athlete Committee felt very alone speaking up against decisions they felt did not align with clean and ethical support. Over time that changed. Now we are seeing more athletes and athlete groups stepping into roles that are rightfully theirs, finding their voices, and using their platforms to push for change in a positive direction.

It gives me hope to see so many athletes who recognize their power and are using it to try and keep sport as a place of ethics and integrity. I am also continually encouraged by the quality of investigative journalism that exists and the work done to expose corruption and abuse in sport. The more we expose the problems the better chance we have of addressing and correcting them.

For more webinar content and to register for future sessions, check out SIRC’s full series – Experts in the House.

Research from the Canadian Centre for Ethics in Sport finds, when it comes to doping, 82% of Canadians disagree that it is okay to cheat if you know or believe your opponent is doing the same. Learn more about Canadian Olympic weightlifter Christine Girard’s journey and commitment to clean sport in the SIRCuit.

Canada’s Olympic history is a decorated one. There have been so many moments of note that we sometimes need reminding of what has transpired as the years pass as the medals pile up. For instance, February 2018 marked twenty years since Ross Rebagliati won Olympic gold in snowboarding. His win was notable not only for his gold medal, but also for the conversation it sparked about cannabis in sport.

February 2018 was an important date for me as well – it was when I was appointed to the Senate of Canada.  Like Mr. Rebagliati, the controversies surrounding cannabis were about to become front and center in my life as well. At the time, Parliament was embroiled in a debate over Bill C-45, “The Cannabis Act,” and as a voting member of the Senate I had a decision to make – would I support cannabis remaining an illicit substance, or should I vote in favor of Canadians being free to purchase and consume the substance as they see fit?

Considering the Pros and Cons of Cannabis Legalization

Initially, my main concern was that legalization would normalize cannabis use in our young people. Yet as we began studying the bill, it became clear to me that that horse had left the barn. A 2013 UNICEF report revealed that over a quarter (28%) of Canadians aged 11, 12 and 15 had reported using cannabis in the last year, the highest consumption rate in the world for those ages.

Those in favor of C-45 argued that legalization would allow governments at all levels to control messaging around the substance through packaging and other health warnings, as well as undercut the illicit market. Swayed by arguments made by medical and legal experts, I voted in favor of the legislation. Time will tell if this is the right approach, but for now there are a number of things Canadians must keep in mind as we move forward. This is especially true for Canadian athletes and coaches, who must navigate the new laws as they compete.

Cannabis in Sport

The first consideration is the most obvious – despite being legal in Canada, cannabis is still technically a banned substance according the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) and the Canadian Anti-Doping Program. I say “technically” because WADA, to their credit, has kept pace with changing societal views on the substance. Currently, a tested athlete would need more than 150 nanograms per milliliter of blood (ng/ml) of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive ingredient in marijuana, to run afoul of WADA rules. To put this in perspective, Canada’s new impaired driving laws put the limit at 5 ng/ml. Twenty one years ago, Mr. Rebagliati tested at 17.8 ng/ml.

While the WADA limit is comparatively higher, it is still better for athletes to err on the side of caution, especially before a major competition. Cannabis stays in the system longer than alcohol. Its metabolites are fat soluble, which means they bind to fat molecules, taking longer to leave your system. How long they stay there can vary greatly depending on individual physiology. Whereas one person could be THC free within days of consuming, another could take weeks.

Understanding the Implications – Abroad and at Home

Our athletes must also keep in mind that Canada is one of only two countries (the other being Uruguay) to legalize cannabis. This means that it is prohibited to travel with the substance, and being caught could have severe consequences. This includes travel to the United States where the substance remains illegal at the federal level, despite being permitted in some states. Many of our athletes, staff and volunteers travel to the U.S. for training camps and competitions. Being caught with any amount of cannabis by American customs officials could lead to a ban from entering the country. It remains unclear if even admitting to consuming the substance could get you denied at the border. My recent return from travels in Asia have strongly reminded me of the very unforgiving non-negotiable laws related to possession of any illegal drug.

Even in Canada it can be easy to run afoul of the new law.  While the government made cannabis legal in some instances, it actually increased the consequences for a number of infractions. For instance, there was a great deal of debate in the Senate centered on the idea of “social sharing” – providing a family member or friend with any amount of cannabis. While it would not be right for someone who is 45 to share with someone who is 13, the ethical boundary becomes murkier when two individuals are close in age. The Senate tried to pass an amendment that would have lessened the penalties should someone over 18 share with a minor who was born within two years of them. The government did not accept this amendment, and as it stands now, any adult providing cannabis to a minor could face jail time. This would include an 18 year old passing a joint to a 17 year old, even if they were born just days apart.

This is important to remember. The majority of our athletes are young. They train together, go to school together, and often socialize together. They grow up together, and like most of us will be exposed in social settings to substances like cannabis or alcohol during this time. It is essential that our young athletes are aware that while Canada legalized cannabis, it only did so in a strict set of circumstances. This is not a free for all.

Looking Ahead

Legalization is not without its pitfalls, and the laws around it will no doubt be altered and improved as time goes on. While I reject the framing of legalization as some kind of grand experiment, it is undeniable that we are heading into unknown territory. It is incumbent on the individual to remain aware of the laws as they are written and to decide for themselves if they wish to legally obtain and consume cannabis. Every Canadian will do so based on their circumstances, including our athletes.

Recommended Resources

Ontario’s first legal cannabis stores are scheduled to open today. However, cannabis remains a banned substance for athletes subject to the Canadian Anti-Doping Program (CADP). Learn more about the health and policy implications of cannabis use for athletes in this SIRCuit article.