Use double quotes to find documents that include the exact phrase: "aerodynamic AND testing"

A systematic review and meta-analysis of available research determined that a 30-60 minute afternoon nap has a beneficial impact on physical performance. An afternoon nap also promotes improved cognitive performance and reduces perceived fatigue after sport activity.

Youth elite athlete mental health is complex. Being young is a time of transition and can leave young people vulnerable to mental illness. Meanwhile, elite athletics often involves high pressure situations and intense training. These two experiences combined leaves youth elite athletes especially vulnerable. Researchers are calling for more attention to early mental health intervention.

Physical education (PE) can play an important role in promoting activity and lifelong sport participation amongst youth. However, there is debate regarding how teachers should best assess students in PE. This study explores students’ attitudes towards different areas related to assessment in PE, including curriculum, grading, teachers, and fitness testing.

Safe sport and safeguarding in sport have become top priorities for the Canadian sport sector.

Prevalence studies have revealed that athletes across different levels of sport frequently experience maltreatment (Alexander et coll., 2011; Vertommen et coll., 2016; US Center for SafeSport, 2021; Willson et coll., 2022). Equity deserving athletes experience more harm in sport (Burdsey, 2011; Kaskan and Ho, 2014; Willson et coll., 2022), hence cultivating a safe sport environment is intrinsically connected to equity, diversity and inclusion work.

In response, there has been a marked increase in the creation of safe sport and safeguarding resources accessible to Canadian sport stakeholders, such as:

According to Joseph Gurgis, a leading researcher in the field of safeguarding in sport, current barriers exist mainly within the realm of operationalization and implementation, such as:

The sport sector has responded with a notable increase in safe sport-related job postings within the Canadian sport sector. The Sport Information Resource Centre job board is a nationally renowned hub for jobs postings related to sport and physical activity in Canada. SIRC’s job posting data shows an upward trend in safe sport and EDI related jobs over the last 3 years.

SIRC observed a 3-fold increase in safe sport related jobs from 2021-2022. These jobs come from all levels within the sport sector, including national sport organizations, provincial and territorial sport organizations, community clubs, multi-sport organizations and post-secondary institutions. This trend speaks to the increased organizational prioritization of athlete well-being within Canada over the last few years.

For organizations considering developing safe sport or safeguarding related positions, SIRC has compiled the following examples from real job submissions over the last year.

Example 1: Director, Safe Sport—Gymnastics Canada

Female gymnast walks on balance beamOverview

Gymnastics Canada (GymCan) is the national sport governing body responsible for the governance, development, and promotion of Gymnastics in Canada. Gymnastics Canada works closely with twelve (12) Provincial and Territorial Federations (P/TSOs) and over 700 clubs to provide a broad range of programs and services to meet the needs of all participants. From athlete development to coach and judge education, Gymnastics Canada sets the operational standards and practices for the sport in Canada. Our mandate is to promote and provide positive and diverse gymnastics experience through the delivery of quality and safe gymnastics programing from playground to podium.

Working virtually and reporting to the CEO, the Safe Sport Director will provide leadership in the area of GymCan’s Safe Sport Framework and the promotion of a safe environment for all participants in the sport of gymnastics. This framework includes policies and procedures, education and resources, and advocacy with respect to screening, conduct, reporting, privacy, risk management, equity and inclusion, concussion awareness and protocols, anti-doping, and health and safety. The Safe Sport Director will work with all GymCan stakeholders, including staff, board, provincial and territorial organizations (PTOs), and clubs, as well as external partners to establish and maintain a coordinated national approach to Safe Sport and safeguarding in the sport of Gymnastics.

Key responsibilities

 Ideal candidate

Example 2: Sport Safety Officer—Gymnastics BC


Gymnastics BC (GymBC) is seeking a dynamic, innovative and responsible individual to evaluate, manage and expand GymBC’s Safety & Risk Management programs. This will include collaboration with GymBC members to facilitate compliance with risk management policies.

As leaders in the sport of gymnastics within British Columbia, Gymnastics BC is committed to providing a safe sport environment for all participants that is accessible, inclusive and free from all forms of maltreatment.

Key Responsibilities

Ideal candidate

Example 3: Manager, Safe Sport and Education—Tennis Canada


The Manager will respond to and support the Director in addressing the needs of Tennis Canada Members and key stakeholders in the identification and delivery of safe sport training and education, policies and processes, to foster a safe environment within which participants, athletes, coaches, officials, administrators and all those involved have positive tennis experiences.

Key responsibilities

Ideal candidate

Final thoughts

Canadians can expect safe sport and safeguarding to continue as key priorities for the sport sector over the coming years, as these new positions undertake their mandates to increase athlete safety at all levels.

If you or your organization is seeking to hire, consider utilizing SIRC’s job board to maximize the reach of your posting within the Canadian sport community.

Research shows that international sporting events can play a role in community development when local context and community members’ perspectives are taken into account. However, little research has been conducted regarding international events in post-war and post-conflict regions. Recent research on the Diving World Series in Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina seeks to help fill that gap.

Sport participation has many benefits for one’s well-being. However, sport is not always a welcoming environment for LBGTQ+ people. Research consistently demonstrates that homophobia can be pervasive in sport contexts like gyms, arenas, and locker rooms (Anderson, 2017; Cleland, 2018; Frederick et al., 2022; Hartmann-Tews et al., 2021). In this blog, researchers from Brock University share findings from their study on the experiences of gay men in organized sport, including how they navigate stressors and ultimately how they derive well-being from sport participation.

A Para athlete who chooses to pursue a new sport or get involved in a second sport, or whose circumstances force them to leave their sport, is engaging in a process called “athlete transfer.” The Paralympic Athlete Transfer Task Force has undertaken research to understand athlete transfer experience and inform future policies and pathways.

Sport is the most watched, celebrated, supported, and engaging social endeavour in the world (Hulteen et coll., 2017). Sport is inherently emotionally and narratively captivating, embodying and upholding principles of positive and sustainable human, social, and environmental development. But the potential for sport to do good for participants and society more broadly relies on sport cultures and environments that centre participants and uphold positive social values.  

Cultural change is not as difficult as we may believe, and we all have the power to shift and strengthen the culture of our sport environments. Cultural change begins with understanding the mechanics of culture in organizations and the relationship between organizational climate, structures or artifacts, trust and engagement. Next, one must access the tools to “audit” the organization for cultural fractures. Most importantly, identifying accessible mechanisms to personally affect cultural change within your program or organization equips you to do the work.

In this blog, I outline the mechanics of cultural change and provide tools and resources for sport leaders and administrators looking to change the culture of their sport. 

The blueprint and materials

Part of the enduring challenge facing sport leaders who are struggling to address violence, cheating, abuse and discrimination in sport is that the cultural norms that bind sport structures have not changed. To change culture, we need to first audit the culture by peeling back or drilling down through the layers of values and beliefs in order to expose, and then challenge and change, some of the governing assumptions within sport. Typically, leaders re-examine goals, values and priorities without examining the fundamental beliefs and assumptions driving them.

Schein’s (2010) theory of organizational culture provides a useful lens through which to view sociocultural forces within sport. Schein compares culture to an iceberg or onion (Figure 1).

On the surface one will find:

Operating below the surface, however, linger:

Figure 1. The abusive sport environment: A cultural onion of hierarchy, control, and exemption

For instance, currently, we see abuse in sport. Artifacts of abuse on the surface level include discriminatory behaviours, rules, team policies, and actions. For example, Figure 1 illustrates how a person in authority may demean an athlete, discriminate against them based on their appearance or behaviour, humiliate them in front of their peers, exclude them from team activities, punish them for mental or physical injury or illness by prohibiting them from further training and development.

This abuse is justified as valuing “grit,” coupled with a belief that a specific body type, or pushing through injury and illness are a sign of that grit. An individual’s capacity to endure abuse is seen to be the path to grit and high performance. These beliefs represent the fundamental assumption that high performance can only be achieved via 1 path, and that abuse is not only okay, but necessary, to reveal true strength within an athlete. Within this example we also see a narrow-minded assumption that athletes are born, not developed.

Roberts, Sojo and Grant (2020) and Thoroughgood and Padilla (2013) describe the organizational artifacts, values and assumptions that lead to abuse as a toxic triangle (Figure 2). A destructive leader’s abuse of power can lead to a climate of fear, instability, and lack of accountability as well as the valuing of dominance, abuse, control and compliance. To endure such an environment, followers tend to rely on conformity (complying with the norm) or collusion (exploiting norms further for one’s own benefit).

Figure 2. The Toxic Triangle of Abuse in Sport (Padilla, Hogan, Kaiser, 2007)

The tools and skills

Cultural change in sport must begin with revealing and challenging the assumptions of exceptionalism that have become common in sport leadership but are at odds with the true potential of sport for society. Replacing existing hierarchical assumptions with the foundational principles of duty (of care) and responsibility (to lead and model social values) would reconstruct the foundation of sport and manifest the values of respect, friendship, and excellence through artifacts of equitable structures and policies, developmental practices, and caring behaviours.

Through his work with Own the Podium, alongside partners the Canadian Olympic Committee and Canadian Paralympic Committee, University of Ottawa professor and mental performance consultant Dr. Kyle Paquette offers a promising model that places people and performance at the foundation of sport (the “culture of excellence” model). These values in turn shape the cultural artifacts (attitudes, structures, behaviours, and practices) of an excellent sport experience for all participants.

Tips for getting down to the cultural work:

  1. Identify space and time to conduct a thorough audit using tools like the Barrett Values Assessment, or a facilitated workshop
  2. Revisit organizational core values to ensure the values are shared
  3. Engage relevant audiences to participate in the audit
  4. Remind the groups that identifying cultural incongruities and fractures are essential: “cracks are where the light comes in”
  5. Ensure that all artifacts, practices, and behaviours across the environment reflect the shared values
  6. Establish a regular review and re-alignment process

Cultural audit “check in” exercise:

Engage in a cultural audit “check in” exercise by answering 3 questions with your colleagues or teammates:

  1. What do we value?
  2. In what ways do we contradict our values?
  3. How can we bring our behaviours into alignment with our values?

Reframing sport: From dominance and privilege to partnership and excellent sport experiences for all

Sport at its centre is for the purpose of developing human beings (mentally, physically, emotionally, socially) for the sake of developing society as a whole. Sport delivery is therefore a partnership between participants (athletes, volunteers, and fans) and sport leaders (coaches, officials, administrators and practitioners) working for a shared goal of excellent experiences for all (Walinga, Obee, Cuningham & Cyr, 2021). By placing “excellent experiences for all” at the centre of our shared purpose in sport, gold standards (not gold medals) will return sport to the shared values of respect, friendship and excellence.

Excellent experiences in sport can look very different for each participant in sport: fun for the recreational, friendship for the young, having one’s best race for the high-performance athlete, helping an athlete achieve a personal best for a coach, a clean and safe game for a referee, or an exciting tie breaker for a spectator. With excellence for all at the center comes partnership and with partnership, a more global perspective of sport. With human and social development as the central governing principle of our sport culture, we are inspired to be caring of ourselves and one another, open to innovation, inclusive of newcomers with potential, aligned in our focus, trusting in our process, and committed to our relationships, our community and sport as a whole.


Mobile apps and fitness trackers are a convenient way to monitor activity, set personalized activity goals and receive feedback on your activity levels. Fitness apps and activity trackers encourage better activity habits; for example, researchers found that those who use apps and trackers take approximately 1850 more steps per day, which is equal to just over one extra kilometre of walking a day.

Young gymnasts are most at risk for growth-related and overuse injuries. Two risk factors of these types of injury are maturation and training load. Currently, little is known regarding coaching knowledge and practice related to these risks. This study examines coach knowledge and identifies gaps to help promote athlete safety.